Supreme Courts (Highest Instance)
The Supreme Court of Panama (Corte Suprema) is the highest judicial instance in Panama. The Court is divided into 4 chambers:
First chamber: Civil law
Second Chamber: Criminal Law
Third Chamber: Administrative Law
Fourth Chamber: General business law
The Supreme Court consists of nine magistrates and nine alternates, appointed by the president for a period of 10 year.
The Appellate Courts of Panama (Tribunal Superior) are territorially divided into 4 judicial districts. (Primera, Segundo, Tercera y Cuatro)
The judges of the Appellate Courts are appointed by the Supreme Court.
Appellate judges appoint circuit and municipal court judges in their respective jurisdictions.
Primer Tribunal Superior del Primer Distrito Judicial
Secundo Tribunal Superior del Primer Distrito Judicial
Tercer Tribunal Superior del Primer Distrito Judicial
Tribunal Superior del Cuarto Distrito Judicial
Tribunal Superior del Segundo Distrito Judicial
Tribunal Superior del Tercera Distrito Judicial
Within each province there are two circuit courts, one for civil and one for criminal cases. The judges of the Circuit courts are appointed by the appelate courts
Circuit Courts (Tribunal Circuital)
First Instance Courts
The lowest first instance courts are the municipal courts, which can be found in the 65 municipal subdivisions of Panama. The judges are appointed by the courts immediately above them.
Minor Courts Justices of the Peace
'Corregidores' and police judges trial on minor civil and criminal cases involving sentences less than 1 year. They are appointed by the municipal mayors. The proceedings of these courts are not subject to the Code of Criminal Procedure.
Justices of Peace
Court of Audit
Contraloría General de la República
Labor Supreme Court
Tribunal Superior de Trabajo del Primer Distrito Judicial
Tribunal Superior de Trabajo del Segundo Distrito Judicial
Tribunal Maritimo del Primer Distrito Judicial
Tribunal Superior de Familia
Tribunal Superior de Ninez y Adolescencia